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必看干货 | 9月21日雅思考题回顾
资讯 · 2017-10-09 09:49:04



  1 queen

  2 double

  3 river view

  4 West Avenue

  5 mirror

  6 1.8 metres

  7 Tuesday

  8 fridge

  9 bus stop

  10 main road


  11. opportunities

  12. confidence

  13. contacts

  14. employees

  15. documents

  16. promotion

  17. 45

  18. networking

  19. application form



  21-27 配对

  21. B

  22. G

  23. A


  25. C

  26. F

  27. D


  28. B

  29. C

  30. C


  31. salts



  34. HealthInternational

  35. 9

  36. family

  37. glass

  38. germs

  39. 12.5

  40. water tank



  From A Noviceto An Expert


  Expertise is commitment coupled with creativity. Specifically, it is thecommitment of time, energy, and resources to a relatively narrow field of studyand the creative energy necessary to generate new knowledge in that field. Ittakes a considerable amount of time and regular exposure to a large number ofcases to become an expert。

  An individual enters a field of study as a novice. The novice needs tolearn the guiding principles and rules of a given task in order to perform thattask. Concurrently; the novice needs to be exposed to specific cases, orinstances, that test the boundaries of such principles. Generally, a novicewill find a mentor to guide her through the process of acquiring new knowledge.A fairly simple example would be someone learning to play chess. The novicechess player seeks a mentor to teach her the object of the game, the number ofspaces, the names of the pieces, the function of each piece, how each piece ismoved, and the necessary conditions for winning or losing the game.

  In time, and with much practice, the novice begins to recognise patternsof behavior within cases and, thus, becomes a journeyman. With more practiceand exposure to increasingly complex cases, the journeyman finds patterns notonly within cases but also between cases. More importantly, the journeymanlearns thak these patterns often repeat themselves over time. The journeymanstill maintains regtdar contact with a mentor to solve specific problems andlearn more complex strategies. Returning to the example of the chess player,the individual begins to learn patterns of opening moves, offensive anddefensive game-playing strategies, and patterns of victory and defeat.

  When a journeyman starts to make and test hypotheses about futurebehavior based on past experiences, she begins the next transition. Once shecreatively generates knowledge, rather than simply matching superficialpatterns, she becomes an expert. At this point, she is confident in herknowledge and no longer needs a mentor as a guide—she becomes responsible forher own knowledge. In the chess example, once a journeyman begins competingagainst experts, makes predictions based on patterns, and tests thosepredictions against actual behavior, she is generating new knowledge and adeeper understanding of the game. She is creating her own cases rather thanrelying on the cases of others.

  The Power of Expertise

  An expert perceives meaningful patterns in her domain better thannon-experts. Where a novice perceives random or disconnected data points, anexpert connects regular patterns







  1. Guiding principles; rules

  2. Mentor

  3. Patterns of behaviour

  4. Complex

  5. Test


  6. FALSE


  8. TRUE

  9. TRUE




  12.Human bias




  Fossilfiles “ThePaleobiology Database”


  Are wenow living through the sixth extinction as our own activities destroy

  ecosystemsand wipe out diversity? That’s the doomsday scenario painted

  by manyecologists, and they may well be right. The trouble is we don’t

  know forsure because we don’t have a clear picture of how life changes

  betweenextinction events or what has happened in previous episodes. We

  don’t even knowhow many species are alive today, let alone the rate at which

  they arebecoming extinct. A new project aims to fill some of the gaps. The

  PaleobiologyDatabase aspires to be an online repository of information about

  everyfossil ever dug up. It is a huge undertaking that has been described as

  biodiversity’s equivalentof the Human Genome Project. Its organizers hope

  that byrecording the history of biodiversity they will gain an insight into how

  environmentalchanges have shaped life on Earth in the past and how they

  might doso in the future. The database may even indicate whether life can

  reboundno matter what we throw at it, or whether a human induced extinction

  could bewithout parallel, changing the rules that have applied throughout the

  rest ofthe planet’s history.


  Butalready the project is attracting harsh criticism. Some experts believe it

  to beseriously flawed. They point out that a database is only as good as the

  data fedinto it, and that even if all the current fossil finds were catalogued,

  theywould provide an incomplete inventory of life because we are far from

  discoveringevery fossilised species. They say that researchers should get up

  fromtheir computers and get back into the dirt to dig up new fossils. Others

  are moresceptical still, arguing that we can never get the full picture because

  thefossil record is riddled with holes and biases.


  Fans ofthe Paleobiology Database acknowledge

  that thefossil record will always be incomplete.

  But theysee value in looking for global patterns

  thatshow relative changes in biodiversity.

  “The fossil record is the best tool we have for

  understandinghow diversity and extinction work in normal times,” says John

  Alroyfrom the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa

  Barbara.“Having a background extinction estimate gives us abenchmark for

  understandingthe mass extinction that’s currently under way. It allows us to

  say justhow bad it is in relative terms.”


  To thisend, the Paleobiology Database aims to be the most thorough attempt

  yet tocome up with good global diversity curves. Every day between 10

  and 15scientists around the world add information about fossil finds to the

  database.Since it got up and running in 1998, scientists have entered almost

  340,000specimens, ranging from plants to whales to insects to dinosaurs to

  seaurchins. Overall totals are updated hourly at www.paleodb.org. Anyone

  candownload data from the public part of the site and play with the numbers

  to theirheart’s content. Already, the database has thrown up somesurprising

  results.Looking at the big picture, Alroy and his colleagues believe they

  havefound evidence that biodiversity reached a plateau long ago, contrary

  to thereceived wisdom that species numbers have increased continuously

  betweenextinction events. “The traditional view is that diversity has gone up

  and upand up,” he says. “Our research is showing that diversity limits were

  approachedmany tens of millions of years before the dinosaurs evolved, much

  lesssuffered extinction.” This suggests that only a certain number of species

  can liveon Earth at a time, filling a prescribed number of niches like spaces

  in amulti-storey car park. Once it’s full, no more new species can squeeze in,

  untilextinctions free up new spaces or something rare and catastrophic adds a

  newfloor to the car park.


  Alroyhas also used the database to reassess the accuracy of species names.

  Hisfindings suggest that irregularities in classification inflate the overall

  numberof species in the fossil record by between 32 and 44 per cent. Single

  speciesoften end up with several names, he says, due to misidentification or

  poorcommunication between taxonomists in different countries. Repetition

  likethis can distort diversity curves. “If you have really bad taxonomy in one

  shortinterval, it will look like a diversity spike~a big diversification followed

  by a bigextinction—when all that has happened is a change in the quality

  ofnames,” says Alroy. For example, his statistical analysisindicates that of

  the 4861North American fossil mammal species catalogued in the database,

  between24 and 31 per cent will eventually prove to be duplicates.


  Ofcourse, the fossil record is undeniably patchy (adj. 不协调的). Some laces

  andtimes have left behind more fossil-filled rocks than others. Some have

  beensampled more thoroughly. And certain

  kinds ofcreatures— those with hard parts

  thatlived in oceans, for example— are

  morelikely to leave a record behind, while

  others,like jellyfish, will always remain a

  mystery.Alroy has also tried to account for

  this. Heestimates, for example, that only

  41 percent of North American mammals

  thathave ever lived are known from fossils,

  and hesuspects that similar proportion of

  fossilsare missing from other groups, such

  as fungiand insects .


  Noteveryone is impressed with such mathematical wizardry (n. 魔法).

  onathanAdrain from the University of Iowa in Iowa City points out that

  statisticalwrangling ( 争吵) has been known to create mass extinctions where

  noneoccurred. It is easy to misinterpret data. For example, changes in sea level

  orinconsistent sampling methods can mimic major changes in biodiversity.

  Indeed,a recent and thorough examination of the literature on marine bivalve

  fossilshas convinced David Jablonsky from the University of Chicago and his

  colleaguesthat their diversity has increased steadily over the past 5 million

  years .


  Adrainbelieves that fancy analytical techniques are no substitute for hard

  evidence,but he has also seen how inadequate historical collections can be.

  When hestarted his ongoing study of North American fossils from the Early

  Ordovician,about 500 million years ago, the literature described one genus and

  fourspecies of trilobites, lust by going back to the fossil beds and sampling

  morethoroughly, Adrain found 11 genera and 39 species. “Lookinginward

  hasmaybe taken us as far as it’s going to take us,” he says. “There’s an awful

  lot moreout there than is in the historical record.” The only way to really get

  at thehistory of biodiversity, say Adrain and an increasingly vocal group of

  scientists,is to get back out in the field and collect new data.


  With aninventory of all living species, ecologists could start to put the current

  biodiversitycrisis in historical perspective. Although creating such a list would

  be atask to rival even the Palaeobiology Database, it is exactly what the San

  Francisco-basedALL Species Foundation hopes to achieve in the next 25

  years.The effort is essential, says Harvard biologist Edward O. Wilson, who

  isalarmed by current rates of extinction. “There is a crisis. We’ve begun to

  measureit, and it’s very high,” Wilson says. “We need this kind of information

  in muchmore detail to protect all of biodiversity, not just the ones we know

  well.” Let thecounting continue.



  14. Vi AJ这个教授认为这个database第一个缺点是有很多重复性词条

  15. I. database的介绍

  16. Vii. AJ这个教授认为这个database第二个缺点,地球上有很多地方比如说海底,还没有被探索

  17. Ii. 一些人很支持这个database,认为对未来寻找新物种很有帮助

  18. Iv. 关于jellyfish的化石比较少的原因,因为是软体动物,几乎没有骨骼

  19. Viii. 对这个database的未来的plans

  20. Iii. 这个database的好处,它有5百万份样品



  21. B. 有很多重复词条

  22. D. 地球上还有大量生物未被发现和鉴定


  23. E. 第一个J教授他认为应该收集更多的化石

  24. A. AJ认为我们应该清除一些重复词条

  25. C. MS对这个数据库的未来非常看好

  26. B. RL对数据库的未来表示不太看好



  When most of us hear the word chocolate, we picture a bar, a box ofbonbons1), or a bunny2). The verb that comes to mind is probably"eat", not "drink", and the most apt3) adjective would seemto be "sweet". But for about 90 percent of chocolate's long history,it was strictly a beverage, and sugar didn't have anything to do withit. "I often call chocolate the best-known food that nobody knowsanything about," said Alexandra Leaf, a self-described "chocolateeducator" who runs a business called Chocolate Tours of New YorkCity.

  Theterminology can be a little confusing, but most experts these days use the term"cacao" to refer to the plant or its beans before processing4), whilethe term "chocolate" refers to anything made from the beans."Cocoa" generally refers to chocolate in a powdered form, although itcan also be a British form of "cacao". Etymologists5) trace theorigin of the word "chocolate" to the Aztec6) word"xocoatl", which referred to a bitter drink brewed from cacao beans.The Latin name for the cacao tree, Theobroma cacao, means "food of thegods". Many modern historians have estimated that chocolate has beenaround for about 2000 years, but recent research suggests that it may be evenolder. In the book The True History of Chocolate, authors Sophie andMichael Coe make a case7) that the earliest linguistic evidence of chocolateconsumption stretches back three or even four millennia8), to pre-Columbiancultures of Mesoamerica9) such as the Olmec10).

  LastNovember, anthropologists from the University of Pennsylvania announced thediscovery of cacao residue11) on pottery excavated in Honduras12) that coulddate back as far as 1400 B.C.E. It appears that the sweet pulp13) of the cacaofruit, which surrounds the beans, was fermented14) into an alcoholic beverageof the time. "Who would have thought, looking at this, that you caneat it?" said Richard Hetzler, executive chef of the café at theSmithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian, as he displayed a freshcacao pod15) during a recent chocolate-making demonstration. "You wouldhave to be pretty hungry, and pretty creative!"

  It's hard topin down16) exactly when chocolate was born, but it's clear that it wascherished from the start. For several centuries in pre-modern Latin America,cacao beans were considered valuable enough to use as currency. One bean couldbe traded for a tamale17), while 100 beans could purchase a good turkey hen,according to a 16th-century Aztec document.

  Both theMayans and Aztecs believed the cacao bean had magical, or even divine,properties18), suitable for use in the most sacred19) rituals of birth,marriage and death. According to Chloe Doutre-Roussel's book The ChocolateConnoisseur20), Aztec sacrifice victims who felt too melancholy21) to join in ritualdancing before their death were often given a gourd of chocolate (tinged withthe blood of previous victims) to cheer them up.

  Sweetenedchocolate didn't appear until Europeans discovered the Americas and sampled thenative cuisine. Legend has it that the Aztec king Montezuma22) welcomed theSpanish explorer Hernando Cortés with a banquet that included drinkingchocolate, having tragically mistaken him for a reincarnated23) deity insteadof a conquering invader. Chocolate didn't suit the foreigners' taste buds24) atfirst—one described it in his writings as "a bitter drink forpigs"—but once mixed with honey or cane sugar, it quickly became popularthroughout Spain.

  By the 17thcentury, chocolate was a fashionable drink throughout Europe, believed to havenutritious, medicinal and even aphrodisiac25) properties. But it remainedlargely a privilege of the rich until the invention of the steam engine mademass production possible in the late 1700s.

  In 1828, aDutch chemist found a way to make powdered chocolate by removing about half thenatural fat (cacao butter) from chocolate liquor, pulverizing26) what remainedand treating the mixture with alkaline27) salts to cut the bitter taste. Hisproduct became known as "Dutch cocoa", and it soon led to the creationof solid chocolate.

  The creationof the first modern chocolate bar is credited to Joseph Fry, who in 1847discovered that he could make a moldable chocolate paste by adding melted cacaobutter back into Dutch cocoa. By 1868, a little company called Cadbury wasmarketing boxes of chocolate candies in England. Milk chocolate hit the marketa few years later, pioneered28) by another name that may ring abell29)—Nestle.

  In America,chocolate was so valued during the Revolutionary War30) that it was included insoldiers' rations31) and used in lieu of32) wages. While most of us probablywouldn't settle for33) a chocolate paycheck these days, statistics show thatthe humble cacao bean is still a powerful economic force. Chocolatemanufacturing is a more than 4-billion-dollar industry in the United States,and the average American eats at least half a pound of the stuff permonth.

  In the 20thcentury, the word "chocolate" expanded to include a range ofaffordable treats with more sugar and additives34) than actual cacao in them,often made from the hardiest but least flavorful of the beanvarieties. But more recently, there's been a "chocolaterevolution," Leaf said, marked by an increasing interest in high-quality,handmade chocolates and sustainable, effective cacao farming and harvestingmethods. Major corporations like Hershey's have expanded their artisanal35)chocolate lines by purchasing smaller producers known for premium36)chocolates, such as Scharffen Berger and Dagoba, while independent chocolatierscontinue to flourish as well.



  27. FALSE可可起源于非洲(应该是美洲的墨西哥)

  28. TRUE在欧洲,人们一开始喝巧克力是当药来喝

  29. TRUE政治对巧克力的传播和普及有很大影响(正确,因为法国大革命之后,茶和咖啡酒取代了喝巧克力)

  30. TRUE第一个大规模生产的是美国公司Hershey


  31. F近代巧克力的大规模生产

  32. D在欧洲一开始都是贵族喝的

  33. C西班牙殖民者带回到了欧洲

  34. A这段介绍可可的起源,起源于中美洲,之后传到南美洲,然后到欧洲

  35. B可可在起源地的药用特性,人们喝巧克力是当药喝的


  36. England是欧洲少数国家,巧克力不仅仅局限于宫廷人士的饮用,普通人也可以喝到

  37. 法国文化大革命之后,coffee and tea取代了巧克力成为受欢迎的饮品

  38. Milk的加入使固态巧克力成为受欢迎的零食

  39. 美国MiltonHershey公司使巧克力大规模生产

  40. 大规模生产的坏处就是导致了巧克力quality下降

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