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启德考培:SAT语法词汇题总结
资讯 · 2018-11-07 15:00:34 浏览量 · 141
新SAT考试改革之后,SAT词汇题就融入到阅读当中了,对词汇的考察不仅是词汇本身的意思,更要考虑词汇的上下文语境。

  新SAT考试改革之后,SAT词汇题就融入到阅读当中了,对词汇的考察不仅是词汇本身的意思,更要考虑词汇的上下文语境。这里总结了历年考试真题中的词汇题,并进行解析,来加深大家对词汇题的理解。


  一.语境线索

  不管是阅读部分,还是文法部分,语境始终是考查的重点,所以一定要结合语境线索。

  例1.2016年5月亚洲卷阅读第2题

  As used in line 16, “kicks” most nearly means

  A) thrills.

  B) complaints.

  C) jolts.

  D) interests.

  本题考查的单词“kick”很简单,但是选项里估计有很多同学不认识 thrill(战栗,激动) 和 jolt(颠簸,摇晃;震惊),这已经是做题的第一道障碍,答案选项有不认识的词;再看该词所在的完整的句子:

  He did not demur even when asked to fix watches, though that enterprise did spectacularly badly, and in fact earned him more kicks than kudos, for no watch he took apart ever kept time again.

  我们发现 demur (反对;抗辩)是生词,kick 对应的后面的单词 kudos(来自希腊语,赞扬,荣誉) 也不认识,这是第二道障碍。如果词汇量足够大,认识 kudos,那么答案就很容易选了。但是如果能够读懂文章,通过上下文知道主人公“他”对于修表这项事业做的并不成功,因为for后面有解释——他拆开过的表再也走不准了,那么就知道这个事业给他带来的是别人的抱怨。这样也能选出正确答案 B。

  例2、2016年5月亚洲卷阅读第49题

  As used in line 69, “betting on” most nearly means

  A) dabbling in.

  B) gambling with.

  C) switching from.

  D) optimistic about.

  单看这道题目,bet on 的本义是“以……打赌”;dabble in 本义是“玩水”,引申义是“涉足,涉猎”;gamble with 是“以……赌博”,引申义“以……冒险”;switch的本义是“开关” switch from引申为“从……转换”;optimistic about 的意思是“对……很乐观”。从字面意思上,最接近的选项是B gamble,但是实际上该题目的上下文意思完全和赌博没有任何关系。

  这是阅读第5篇,讲晶体硅发电的一篇科普文章。原文的句子:Even longer-term, Green is betting on silicon, aiming to take advantage of the huge reductions in cost already seen with the technology.

  因为这句话的前面一段讲的是他们一个实验性的生产线,晶体硅发电量提高了,文中给了一些数据,接下来就是这句话,所以“从长期来看, Green很看好晶体硅……”,所以答案应该选 D。

  例3.20160707 AS 第15题

  Luckily, the tower survived, and its tilt has made it an Italian 14 icon, it attracts visitors from all over who flock to Pisa to see one of the greatest architectural 15 weirdnesses in the world.

  NO CHANGE

  deviations

  oddities

  abnormalities

  根据语境,这里表达的是比萨斜塔用建筑的奇特之处,吸引了来自世界各地的朋友。

  weirdness: very strange and unusual and difficult to understand or explain.古怪,奇异

  deviation:sth that is different from what people consider to be normal or acceptable偏离, 越轨

  oddity:a strange or unusual person or thing奇怪, 奇特

  abnormality: an abnormal feature, especially sth that is wrong with part of someone’s body. 不正常,变异,变态。

  根据以上对这些词的理解,用oddity,选C最合适。


  二.固定搭配

  例4.20160507 AS第21题

  Burland 21 advocated using soil extraction: removing small amounts of soil from under the tower’s north side, opposite its tilt, to enable gravity to straighten the tower.

  A) NO CHANGE

  B) advocated to use

  C) advocated the using of

  D) advocating to use

  本题目中,D 选项advocating不能做谓语; C如果加the后面最好用名词use,而不用using;所以答案就在A、B之间选择了。根据固定搭配,本题选A。一般哪些词跟doing,哪些词跟to do,基本上没有规律。但是跟doing的单词相对来说少一些,所以需要大家看到跟doing的动词,就要专门记下来。

  advocate的用法:

  advocate sth\ for sth\ of (doing) sth\ doing sth.

  或者考查动词后面跟什么样的介词。

  例5、2016年5月北美卷语法第20题

  Eventually, Tweed and his gang were 20 persecuted for a number of charges, including fraud and larceny, and many of them were sent to jail.

  A) NO CHANGE

  B) persecuted on

  C) persecuted with

  D) prosecuted on

  本题目中,不仅考查介词persecute sb. for(因为…迫害)、persecute sb. with(拿……纠缠)、persecute on(没有这种用法),prosecute sb. for/on(因为……控告),还考查形近词persecute / prosecute。不过本题只靠单词的意思就很好选出正确答案D。这些单词的考查点都是固定用法,属于OG里面的要求考查的effective language use,只能靠平时的积累记单词。


  三.逻辑关系

  平行关系,转折关系使常常考到的考点哦。

  例6.20160507 AS 第25题

  Because a traditionalist response to the crisis— 25 amping up medical-college enrollments and expanding physician training programs—is too slow and costly to address the near-term problem, alternatives are being explored.

  A)NO CHANGE

  B)bolstering

  C)arousing

  D)revving up

  从 doing and expanding的平行结构中,前面需要一个表示扩大,扩张,促进等意思的词;

  amping up:使(人,情绪)振奋

  bolster:boost, improve

  arouse:make sb become interested ,expect, hostility, suspicion, resentment, anger, etc.引起兴趣,期望,敌意,怀疑,憎恨,愤怒等情绪。

  revving up:increase the speed加速

  所以选项B,bolster enrollment最合适。

  四.加强对词的理解,区分近义词和形近词。

  例7.20160507月NA第2题

  These models have expanded researchers’ knowledge of ancient species and 2 swear to advance the field of paleontology in the years to come.

  A) NO CHANGE

  B) subscribe

  C) vow

  D) promise

  swear , vow, promise 都可以用来指人发誓,但是只有promise才可以用事情做主语。subscribe to(同意),也是只能用用人作主语,并且这个词组中的to是介词,所以答案只能选D。

  例8、20160507第24题

  While the pressures of an aging population, insurance reforms, and health epidemics have increased demand for care, the supply of physicians is not expected to 24 keep pace.

  A) NO CHANGE

  B) maintain the tempo.

  C) get in line.

  D) move along.

  在本题中,get in line (排队),move along(取得进展;走开),根据上下文很容易排除。maintain the tempo和keep pace,看起来字面意思很像,但是maintain the tempo的意思是“保持节奏(不变)”,而keep pace 的意思是“跟上节奏”,更多使用keep pace with sth。根据上下文的意思答案选A。

  例8.20160507 AS 第35题

  This practice is almost as 35 elderly as the medium itself and has in large part established the “ages” that compose comic book history.

  A)NO CHANGE

  B)old

  C)mature

  D)geriatric

  根据established the “ages” that compose comic book history可知,这里要表达的是这个practice历史久远,很古老。 A选项elderly是委婉语,used as a polite way of saying that someone is old or becoming old 年老的,指的是人; B选项 old,对应反义词new, young,符合语境;C选项,mature,sensible,fully grown or developed,指的的成年的,成熟的,不符合语境;D选项geriatric,too old to work well,是一种非正式的方式表达老朽的,年迈的。综合对词和语境的准确理解,选择B最合适。

  例9.20160305NA第41题

  A more legitimate concern pertains to personal health, some studies show a relationship between wind turbine noise and 41 averse health effects caused by annoyance and sleep deprivation in up to 20 percent of residents living close to wind farms.

  A) NO CHANGE.

  B) adverse.

  C) adverted.

  D) adversarial

  本题目中,空格部分需要填形容词性质的词,除了C) adverted是不及物动词,不用作被动语态;其他三个词,语法上都合适,只是意思不同。averse(反对的,不乐意的)、adverse(不利的,相反的)、adversarial(敌手的,敌对的),根据上下文的意思,答案选B。这类题型就是考查学生单词的拼写能力,所以要经常性地总结平时容易混淆的词。


      以上就是启德考培为大家整理的内容,如果想了解更多相关信息,请关注启德考培杭州分校平台,免费获取备考提分解决方案,或欢迎 点击这里 进行网络咨询,我们会给您提供专业的服务。最后,预祝大家能在SAT考试中取得理想中的成绩。


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